When the refuse disposal service goes on strike, heaps of trash will pile up on streets and attract vermin like mice and rats. In a similar way, a cellular waste management system constantly picks up superfluous proteins and damaged organelles in human cells and delivers them to recycling facilities. However, if the cellular waste management system stops working, severe illnesses like Alzheimer´s disease or cancer may develop. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried near Munich, Germany, recently revealed how a major cellular recycling system – autophagy – works. The results of the study have now been published in the research journal Cell.