Proteins need to adopt diverse and complex three-dimensional structures in order to function. Loss of protein conformation is catastrophic for cellular health and a hallmark of aging and diverse neurological diseases. As proteins begin to fold upon emergence from translating ribosomes, our aim is to understand how the cell as a system coordinates translation with protein structure acquisition. We combine in vivo measurements of translation dynamics by ribosome profiling with proteomics, genetics, and biochemistry to define how translation rates guide the attainment of native protein folds in diverse cell types and organisms. Using systems biology approaches, we seek to understand how the cellular machineries for protein synthesis and folding synergize to maintain homeostasis in distinct environments, and how this synergy is perturbed in disease.